features of liberalization

Globalization creates free trade relations among countries around the world. Countries buy and sell goods from each other freely without any government interference. With the growth in trade among nations, their economies also get flourished. It eventually leads to overall growth in the gross national product of the nation. Globalization also improves mutual relations and cooperation among countries in addition to their growth and development. Now this limit has been removed enabling the industries to enjoy large scale production.Producers are now free to produce anything on the basis of demand in the market.

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Instead, the General Agreement on Tariff and Trade , a less ambitious institution, was formed in 1948. The primary objective of GATT is to expand international trade by liberalizing trade so as to bring about all round economic prosperity. GATT was signed in 1947, came into effect in 1948 and lasted until 1994. The original GATT text is still in effect under the WTO framework. The allowance of Multinational Companies to operate in India threatened the existence of several smaller firms. These MNCs were very strong in terms of funds which could not be matched by the smaller firms in India.

In the token or the deficit features of liberalization, the Government would have to disinvest the share capital by up to 5-10% in order to meet the shortage in the budget. This policy, therefore, aims to improve the financial situation in the country and reduce the work pressure of the public sector companies. With the reduced work pressure the efficiency of the public sector would automatically increase and yield better quality of goods and services for the use of consumers. Liberalization of the economy means to free it from direct or physical controls imposed by the government. It refers to the removal or reduction of restrictions or barriers on the free exchange of goods between nations.


With a view to ensuring higher productivity and competitive advantage in the international market; the interference of the Government through MRTP was restricted. Except for these six industries mentioned in the list, all other industries, irrespective of how big investment is involved, have been freed from the provisions of compulsory licensing. Britannica celebrates the centennial of the Nineteenth Amendment, highlighting suffragists and history-making politicians. The Indian stock market appreciated hugely ever since liberalization.

The number of industries that will be reserved only for the public sector reduced from 17 to 8. Only railway, atomic mineral, and atomic energy sectors were reserved for the public sector. The government had given the award of Navratnas to the nine high-performing public sector undertaking.

finance minister

Reforms under lead to an increase in the average GDP growth rate from 2.9 percent in the 1970s to 5.6 per cent, although they failed to fix systemic issues with the Licence Raj. Despite Rajiv Gandhi’s dream for more systemic reforms, the Bofors scandal tarnished his government’s reputation and impeded his liberalisation efforts. Pressure from aid donors caused a shift towards economic liberalisation, wherein the rupee was devalued to combat inflation and cheapen exports and the former system of tariffs and export subsidies was abolished.

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Hence, as the country recovers from the epidemic, the Biden administration’s trade policy prioritizes workers and middle-class people. Outsourcing means an enterprise can employ professionals from other countries to reach a particular goal. There is a lot of contractual work that is being outsourced in the field of Information Technology leading to its development. This has opened new avenues for a lot of private sectors and Indian skills are regarded as the most effective and vibrant across the globe.

RevenueRevenue is the amount of money that a business can earn in its normal course of business by selling its goods and services. In the case of the federal government, it refers to the total amount of income generated from taxes, which remains unfiltered from any deductions. Economic GrowthEconomic growth refers to an increase in the aggregated production and market value of economic commodities and services in an economy over a specific period. The objective of structural measures was to develop international competitiveness. Moreover, the measures aimed to eliminate the rigidity in various sections of the country’s economy.

The low annual growth rate of the economy of India before 1980, which stagnated around 3.5% from the 1950s to 1980s, while per capita income averaged 1.3%. At the same time, Pakistan grew by 5%, Indonesia by 9%, Thailand by 9%, South Korea by 10% and in Taiwan by 12%. EconomyAn economy comprises individuals, commercial entities, and the government involved in the production, distribution, exchange, and consumption of products and services in a society.

  • These include white papers, government data, original reporting, and interviews with industry experts.
  • Many countries have principally agreed for the ‘free entry’ of foreign goods and foreign companies in local market.
  • An increase in the brain drain phenomenon and domestic supply of skilled workers is an incentive to improve education.
  • Their aim was also to promote the efficiency of local industries and the adoption of modern technologies In order to protect domestic industries, India was following a regime of quantitative restrictions on imports.

The RBI decides the amount of money that the banks can keep with themselves, fixes interest rates, nature of lending to various sectors, etc. This was encouraged through tight control over imports and by keeping the tariffs very high. These policies reduced efficiency and competitiveness which led to slow growth of the manufacturing sector. Their aim was also to promote the efficiency of local industries and the adoption of modern technologies In order to protect domestic industries, India was following a regime of quantitative restrictions on imports. This law is expected to generate additional revenue for the government, reduce tax evasion and create ‘one nation, one tax, and one market’. Direct taxes consist of taxes on the incomes of individuals, and also on the profits of business enterprises.

Foreign Exchange Reforms

Liberalization offers the opportunity for the sector to compete internationally, contributing to GDP growth and generating foreign exchange. As such, service exports are an important part of many developing countries’ growth strategies. India’s IT services have become globally competitive as many companies have outsourced certain administrative functions to countries where costs (esp. wages) are lower. The entry of foreign service providers can be a positive as well as negative development. For example, it can lead to better services for domestic consumers, improve the performance and competitiveness of domestic service providers, as well as simply attract FDI/foreign capital into the country.

An increase in the brain drain phenomenon and domestic supply of skilled workers is an incentive to improve education. It can foster FDI, industrial growth and subsequently create more employment opportunities. Economic RecessionEconomic recession is defined as the phase in which economic activities of a country become stagnant, leading to a disturbance in the business cycle and affecting the overall demand-supply balance.

For 2010, India was ranked 124th among 179 countries in Index of Economic Freedom World Rankings. Social and human development remains absurdly low leading to a profoundly fragmented nation. As a result, it led to the development of country 500 faster than previous. Now India is in the situation of world fastest developing economy and maybe chance that India will be at the top till 2050. SubsidiesA subsidy in economics refers to direct or indirect financial assistance from the government to an individual, household, business, or institution to promote social and economic policies.

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By facilitating imports, the Government has opened the import window too wide. Consequently, the benefits of rising exports are more than offset by the much higher rise in imports leading to a more significant trade gap. By permitting free entry of the multinational corporations in the consumer goods sector. LPG model hit the interests of the small and medium sector engaged in the production of consumer goods. There is a danger of labor displacement in the small industry if the unbridled entry of MNCs is continued. The model bypasses agriculture and agro-based industries which are a significant source of generation of employment for the masses.

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“5 https://1investing.in/ decisions by Atal Bihari Vajpayee that changed the face of India”. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. The economy then rebounded to 7.3% growth in 2015, 7.9% in 2015 and 8.2% in 2016 before falling to 6.7% in 2017, 6.5% in 2018 and 4% in 2019. The Chandra Shekhar government (1990–91) took several significant steps towards liberalisation and laid its foundation. The offers that appear in this table are from partnerships from which Investopedia receives compensation. Investopedia does not include all offers available in the marketplace.

Privatization means to drastically reduce the role of the public sector. It refers to transfer of ownership, management and control of the public sector to the private sector. And to achieve this government adopted disinvestment of the public sector and referred the loss making and sick enterprises to the Board of industrial and Financial Reconstruction. As such, government bureaucracy is a common target to be streamlined and improved in the liberalization process. All these changes together lower the political risk for investors, and this lower level of risk is also part of the reason the stock market in the liberalized country rises once the barriers are gone. One of the main effects of this increased flow of capital into the country is that it makes it cheaper for companies to access capital from investors.

India, as one of the members of GATT in recent years is required to adopt the policy of ‘liberalisation’ and remove all the barriers restrictions on import export trade activities. The adoption of the policy of liberalisation has made some effects on business and industrial enterprises. There have been revolutionary change in Indian Economy for the reason that espousal of latest economic technique in 1991.


Globalization is one that integrates the domestic economies with the world economy. The economic interdependence on different economies increases as a result of globalization. Countries are more rapidly exchanging goods, services, technology, and capital with other economies. Globalization focuses on maintaining regulated taxes and tariffs for trader in business. Economic globalization relates to production globalization which means procuring materials from several nations to benefit from cost differences. Technology incorporation and competition also form the part of economic globalization.

New currency notes of the denomination of ₹ 500 and ₹ 2,000 were issued by Reserve Bank of India after the announcement. This step resulted in a substantial increase in the awareness about and use of Point of Sale machines, e-wallets, digital cash and other modes of cashless transactions. Also, increased transparency in monetary transactions and disclosure led to a rise in government revenue in the form of tax collection.